Because methane-producing bacteria can decompose only simple structured nutrients But nutrients in general are both nutrients that are both structured. complex and uncomplicated Therefore, fermentation to generate methane gas requires two types of microorganisms, those that produce methane and those that do not produce methane.
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The first step of decomposition Microorganisms that do not produce methane decompose complex nutrients into simple nutrients. To pass on to the methane-generating microorganisms to further decompose and produce methane gas.
Advantages of using biogas as fuel
1) Help solve the environmental problem of smell, waste and reduce the cost of wastewater treatment.
2) Reduce methane emissions into the atmosphere which reduces the amount of greenhouse gas emissions
3) Reduce costs and generate income for entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs can use biogas to generate electricity for use in their own businesses. or sell electricity to the Electricity Authority
Limitations of using biogas as fuel
1) The system requires quite a lot of space.
2) High system installation cost
3) Must have professional supervision.
Turn solid biomass into combustible gas gasification process (Gasification Process)
It is the process of converting solid fuel biomass into combustible gas. By burning biomass with heat above 700 degrees by limiting the amount of oxygen gas causing incomplete combustion and produces a variety of gasses both combustible gas and non-combustible gas The gas produced by this process, known as “biomass gas”, sometimes called producer gas or syngas, is the gas obtained by burning biomass fuels such as firewood, rice husks, bagasse, wood chips, grass clippings, etc. in air-constrained equipment. (less oxygen) to produce biomass gas This combustion process is referred to as combustion. “Gasification process’ ‘ In this combustion, many gasses are produced. These gasses are collectively known as biomass gasses. The approximate proportion in biomass gas consists of
– Carbon monoxide about 22% – Methane about 2.5%
– Hydrogen about 11% – Carbon dioxide about 12%
– Nitrogen about 50% – Oxygen about 2%
Carbon monoxide, methane, hydrogen gas contained in biomass gas. It is a combustible gas, oxygen gas, although it itself is not flammable. But oxygen gas is a gas that helps the fire to burn, so biomass gas can be considered as a combustible gas.
Burning biomass to convert to fuel gas
In the equipment used to burn biomass for gasification, it is divided into 4 zones as follows.
1) Combustion zone (Combination 3one or Oxidation 3one)
It is a burning zone. At this zone, there will be a temperature of about 900 – 1200 degrees Celsius. In this zone, there will be a channel for oxygen (air) to react with fuel (carbon, hydrogen), producing carbon dioxide and water according to the equation.
C + O2 → CO2 (1)
2H2 + O2 → 2H2O (2)
and heat energy has a temperature of about 1000 – 1500 degrees Celsius
Gas generation zone (Reduction 3one)
When carbon dioxide and water vapor from the reaction in the first zone flow through the gas formation zone The temperature will drop to about 500 – 900 degrees Celsius, carbon dioxide and water. will react with the carbon in the fuel formed carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas according to the equation
C + CO2 → 2CO (3)
C + H2O → CO + H2 (4)
C + 2H2 O → CO2 + 2H2 (5)
CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 (6)
C + 2H2 → + CH4 (7)
Carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and methane gas are produced by the reaction to form combustible gasses. The efficiency of the stove therefore depends on the amount of gas these 3.
Dehumidification Zone (Drying 3one)
burning at the combustion zone will result in the temperature of the charcoal production zone around 100 – 200 degrees Celsius. This heat will act as a dehumidifier from the fuel. And finally, the fuel from this zone will move down to the charcoal production zone. and further burning zone
Charcoal production zone (pyrolysis 3one)
burning at the combustion zone will result in the temperature of the charcoal production zone around 200 – 600 degrees Celsius, causing methanol, acid and bitumen to become solid in the form of carbon and will continue to react in the combustion zone and gas production zone The burning of biomass (wood chips, leaves, etc.) into gaseous fuel has been developed since World War II. But when we dig up crude oil which can be used much more easily, we stop developing. But when there is a problem with expensive oil And is about to run out, the technology that will be discussed below will receive more attention. As an alternative energy
Biomass fuel is a fuel that has all 3 states as follows.
solid state biomass fuel
Biomass fuels in solid form include firewood, charcoal, sawdust, rice straw, corn cob, bagasse, manure, etc. Firewood is the first type of bio-energy used by humans to cook food. providing light and warmth to households since ancient times Thousands of years ago, wood was composed of many different compounds, primarily cellulose. It is about 50 percent of the main compounds. Each compound gives different heat.
liquid biomass fuel
Liquid biomass fuels include ethanol, methanol, vegetable oil and animal oil.
Ethanol is obtained by fermenting plants to convert starch into sugar and then sugar into alcohol. by using enzymes or some acids to help decompose
Methanol is produced from natural gas. Coal and Biogas
Vegetable oils are oil products extracted from plants.
animal oil is an oil product extracted from animals
Gas phase biomass fuel
There are three types of gaseous biomass fuels:
1) Biomass gas
3) Methane hydrates
Biomass and Biogas already mentioned Methane hydrate is an interesting gas as it could be an important energy source in the future.